Consumption of alcohol has been in our civilizations for many years. In historical times, the better ranges of
alcohol were meant for only the aristocrats and were treated as the main source of luxury and entertainment. The cheaper ones used to be preserved for the lower classes of the society.
Alcohol has come a long way through various modifications and upgradations. With time it has become more distilled and more effective. In the past times, alcohol processing used to be done manually hence compromising the hygiene of this luxury beverage, but in the modern times, processing and manufacturing are fully done by automated machines in a very hygienic environment, making it consumer-friendly.
At those times also this mode of luxury was not consumed by men only, women also used to enjoy the high of alcohol quite frequently. Among the many famous alcohols dated thousands and thousands of year back wine takes a notable place.
What is wine?
Alcohol extracted from fermenting grapes is called wine. When yeast formation happens on grapes, it consumes the sugar while turning it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and heat. Various kinds of grape strains produce different kinds of wine. All different in color, taste, and texture. These changes are the result of the complex interactions in the biochemical development of the grape; these reactions also affect the process of fermentation, terroir, and production processes. The geographical origin of the grapes and the vines also effect the variations in wine. Other than from grapes wine is also made from rice and fruits like cherry, plum, current, pomegranate, and elderberry.
The wine history-
Wine had traveled a long pathway from modern-day Georgia to the new world when Spanish traders introduced trading.
Wine has been used in many religions and cults in ancient Egypt and Rome. It was also a ritual by the Jews during the biblical times. Islam though forbids the consumption and manufacturing of wine, historical alchemists like Geber, used wine for medical practices and also for industrial purposes such as making perfumes.
The consumption and production of wine increased in the late 15th century during the European expansion.
During the 19th-century phylloxera louse destroyed many grapevines and people whose lives depended on wine production faced a lot of misery after that wine manufacturing became acquainted with many scientific processes and now is consumed in a high amount globally.
Recent Global Wine Consumption
Types of wine-
There are six main varieties of wine-
This is one of the most randomly consumed and loved variation of wine. The characteristics of red wine are-
- Dark-colored grapes are used
- The younger wines have a purple color while the older wines have a brownish tinge
- The red color comes from anthocyanin, which is a pigment present in the grape skin
- Types of red wine based on grapes-
- It has an aromatic taste and flavors of a wild black current.
- It is mostly found in France, California, and Australia.
- It has a warm alcohol texture.
- The toffee notes come from the barrels they are kept in.
- The color is a hearty, spicy red.
- It has a long shelf time.
- It is a soft wine made for beginners.
- It is made in abundance in us west coast, Australia and other countries.
- It has notes of black cherry and herbal flavors.
- It is one of the world’s best variety of wine.
- Sometimes it can be blended with merlot.
- It goes through oak treatments.
- It is found in northern fringes like Germany and also in France, Australia, California, and Chile.
- It has a firm gripping taste when new, but the taste starts dilute with age.
- The vanilla notes come from the oak treatment.
- It is considered as a noble wine.
- The texture has no roughness.
- It is mainly found in France, Austria, California, Oregon, and New Zealand.
- The structure of this wine is very delicate, fresh and soft.
- The aromas are mainly fruity with lower notes of tea leaf, damp earth or worn leather
White wine is another variety of wine which is consumed by a lot of individuals globally and is a favorite of many. The characteristics of white wine are as follows-
- Non colored grape is used for fermentation
- The grapes are mostly white or yellow
- Derived from wort fermentation
- It’s dry and not so sweet
- Grape sugar converted to alcohol
- Carbon dioxide is not allowed to escape during fermentation.
Types of white wine based on grapes-
- Grown mainly in Germany, Alsace and the eastern USA.
- It is very aromatic and not sweet
- Not so famous wine
- The notes are of apple mainly
- They taste very fresh
- Mainly grown in Alsace, Germany. USA West Coast And New York
- Has fruity flavors
- Aroma notes are of rose petal, peach, lychee, and allspice
- Not so refreshing as dry white wines.
- One of the most famous white wine through the 1990s
- It can be sparkling or still
- The main growing region in France
- It has a velvety top note
- Taste notes mainly are of lemon and grapefruit
- Oak barrels add a buttery tone of vanilla, toast, coconut or toffee
- Californian chardonnay can have notes of citrus flavors, melon, vanilla, and some creaminess
- The main growing regions are New Zealand, Australia, and France
- Lighter than chardonnay
- Notes re of mainly herbal character of bell peppers or freshly mown grass
- Flavor notes are of sour green apples, pears, good berries and tropical fruits like melon, mango, and black current.
- Unoaked smoky qualities.
- Bright aromas and strong acid finish.
- Good for cold weather.
The other main types of wines are-
Rosé wine takes the color from grape skin but not so vivid as red wine. It is the oldest variety of wine. It is made with the help of skin contact method. The color can be pink to orange. Rosé wine be sparkling or semi-sparkling. The sweetness levels vary a lot.
As the name suggests this wine is made from fruits. Also called country wine. Fruit wine can have less sugary note because fruits lack in fermented sugar.
Mead or honey wine-
This wine is made from honey fermented with fruits, spices, grains, or hops. The primary substance is honey. Produced throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. In Europe, it came before grape wine.
Health benefits of wine-
- Red and white wine has many medical advantages which are listed below-
- It helps in protecting the intestinal microbiome and reduces the chance of heart diseases
- It increases the level of omega 3 fatty acid
- It helps in curing type 2 diabetes
- Consuming red wine makes your blood vessels healthier hence improves your blood pressure
- It sometimes protects the brain from damages or stroke
- Red wine can also prevent vision loss
- It helps in diagnosing colon cancer
- Breast cancer can be prevented if red wine is consumed in less amount
- Red wine also helps in improving lung functions
- It can also prevent dementia
- It can reduce depression and anxiety levels
- It can protect from sunburn
- Can treat acne and dental cavities
- It can be used to treat acne
But all these benefits don’t mean that if you don’t drink you have to become a heavy boozer. Everything is good when consumed in a controlled way.
Key players of markets-
Wine is produced globally. But the industry is largest in France where wine supplements as one of the largest consumed alcoholic beverages.
Though wine has a lot of benefits from its end, it is still an alcoholic beverage and shouldn’t be consumed uncontrollably. For women, one glass of wine is enough, and for men, it’s two. Minors shouldn’t be consuming this beverage.
The wine industry is responsible for the addition of economic revenues, and since history, it has always been a major part in export and import. But still now noble wines are very heavy on the pocket for a middle-class person, but alternatives such as local wines can also be consumed only when you are fully convinced by its production and ingredients.
- What is the trending wine market?
Wine is adding a lot of revenue in the economies and is giving hopes to people relying their lives of vineyard. Wine market is also influencing the trade and commerce positively.
- Which wine is consumed more?
Among the six variants of wine red wine and white wine is consumed in a large amount globally. They have many health benefits and is termed as a relaxing luxury beverage.
- Apart from grapes what can be wine made of?
Wine is mainly made of grapes but apart from that in many places wine is also made from ice, fruits and honey. These wines have very different taste and texture from the normal grape infused wines.
- Which place is holding the topmost position in wine market?
France is still the largest producer of wine. All the variants of wine are manufactured there. In France wine is considered as a relaxing beverage and the tastes are different from wines manufactured in other parts of the world.